Age related macular degeneration (AMD)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible central vision loss in elderly patients. Dilated funduscopic findings are diagnostic; color photographs, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography assist in confirming the diagnosis and in directing treatment.
AMD damages cells in the eye’s macula, the center portion of the retina that allows you to see objects clearly. There is no cure, but some cases are treatable and vision can often be stabilized or improved with early detection and treatment.
There are two major types of ARMD, a “dry” (non-neo-vascular) and “wet” (non vascular) form. The dry form is the early stage. It is the most common form of AMD. There is usually little or no vision loss during this stage. Some patients may have significant vision loss from more advanced “dry” degeneratio namely geographic atrophy. The wet form is a late stage of the condition and affects about 10% of all people with the condition. Wet accounts for the majority of central vision loss due to AMD. The wet type implies leakage and bleeding in the macula due to abnormal blood vessels, known as choroidal neovascularization. These abnormal blood vessels start to grow beneath the center of the macula and, as they grow, they leak fluid or blood and cause central vision loss with blurring and distortion of vision. Untreated, these abnormal blood vessels typically will grow relatively large and eventually cause scarring with permanent and often severe central vision loss.